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Health Belief Model Factors as Predictors of Parental Misclassification of the Weight of the Preschool Child
Department: Nursing
Specimen Elements
Unknown to Unknown
Tanna Woods
Idaho State University
City: Pocatello
Childhood obesity levels are nearing epidemic proportions andwidespread, unnecessary health and social consequences can extendinto adulthood (CDC, 2016). Prevention/intervention inthe preschool ages is important due to younger children’s adaptability (McKee et al, 2016). Parentalawareness iskey as parents are gatekeepers for childbeliefs, behaviors, and diet (Hochdorn et al., 2018).Inaccurateperception of child weight is aconfirmed barrier linked to demographic features like child age and gender.Modifiable factors to frame future intervention/prevention efforts have not been explored. This descriptive, cross-sectional studyhadeightquestions relating toHealth Belief Model (HBM) components(perceived severity, perceived barriers,and perceived susceptibility)and parental weight classification using three methods: a 4-point Likert scale, reported weight in pounds, and selection of a picture most resembling their child. Instruments included the Parental Self-Efficacy for Promoting HealthyPhysical Activity and Dietary Behaviors in Children Scale(PSEPAD), the Obesity Risk Scale (ORK-10), and the AdolescentObesity Risk Scale (AORK). The sample included 198 parents and children recruited from daycares and standalonepreschools. Analyses included frequencies, chi-square tests, Kappa coefficients, and logistic regressions.Parents wereleast accurate(35.9%) identifying child weight when selecting apicture (κ =-.028, p = .42). The pictorial and Likert method (κ = -.032, p = .37) showed parental agreement with child weight was notsignificantly better than chance. Statistically significant agreement was found intheweight-reporting method (κ = .21). Two of the three HBM-related measures weresignificantly related to accurate classification. A logistic regression model showed child sex, PSEPAD scores, and ORK-10 scores were statisticallysignificant predictorsin the Likert method. The model had no statistical significance for the pictorial or weight-reporting method.Results indicate parents supportintervening ifaware ofchildweightproblems. However, parentsdo notaccurately recognize healthy versusunhealthy weights and report that health providers are not informing them of weightdeviations. Further, important relationships between the HBM variables were identified. Instead of the directeffects theorized, results showbarriers (self-efficacy) mediate the effect of perceived severity(knowledge) regarding parental ability to assess child weight accurately. These relationships and incorporation ofthe HBM principles of barriers and severity into prevention/intervention strategies needfurther exploration.

Health Belief Model Factors as Predictors of Parental Misclassification of the Weight of the Preschool Child

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